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2022
Thursday, April 21st
3:00 PM

Session 1 Global Action Leadership Dialogue 1

Lauren Eastwood, State University of New York at Plattsburgh
Jade Hamiester

3:00 PM

Students engaged in dialogue with leaders who focus upon intergovernmental processes and youth advocacy to create change.

Moderated by Cody Sanford, Colorado State University and Charles Doktycz and Madeline Allen, Vanderbilt University

3:50 PM

Session 2 Youth Debrief

Youth Environmental Alliance in Higher Education Network

3:50 PM

Students discussed what they heard in the Leadership Dialogue, and network with students from around the world.

Moderated by Shane French, Monash University

4:00 PM

Concurrent Session 1 Burma Padauk: How Ecological Indicators Can Provide a Model for Sustainability Goal Planning in Cambodia

Isabel Sevilla, Colorado State University
Alexis Foster, Colorado State University
Avery Schell, Colorado State University
Ziwen Sun, Colorado State University

4:00 PM

Representing the country of Cambodia, we are analyzing the SDGs, pressures, drivers, current state, impacts, and responses related to the endangered vegetation Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Burma Padauk. We are focusing on the three SDGs of 13: Climate Action, 16: Life on Land, and 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure due to their high correlation to the species, species habitat, and conservation issues. We will discuss how and why the Burma Padauk is endangered, as well as what is being done to protect this species and others like it through discussion in the drivers, current state, and responses both publicly and governmentally.

Concurrent Session 2 The Jamaica Boa as the Ecological Indicator of Jamaica Island

Anna Montesanti, Colorado State University
Aude de Ruffray, Colorado State University
Minna Munson, Colorado State University
Cailin Stevens, Colorado State University

4:00 PM

Today, 221 endemic species in Jamaica are considered vulnerable to extinction. In this presentation, we have selected one: the Jamaican boa, which is our ecological indicator. In our presentation we will explore how the impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise, flooding and deforestation affect the Jamaican boa, and more generally, alter the insular state. Faced with these emergencies, we will also present the DPSIR figure with the solutions envisaged by the country and how they are linked to the three sustainable development goals (SDGs 9,11,13) we have selected for Jamaica.

Concurrent Session 3 Sustainability of Organic Agriculture Using the Sixth Industrialization in the Philippines: A Case Study of Costales Nature Farms in Majayjay, Laguna

Joanna Joy Torreda, Monash University

4:00 PM

People see organic agriculture differently. It can be a luxurious necessity while to others it is a way of helping the environment and keeping the body healthy. It is quickly gaining its momentum in the agriculture sector but still far from its full potential. The main objective of this study is to see the different challenges affecting the sustainability of a farm in the Philippines that uses the sixth industrialization, a Japanese management strategy related to organic farming.

Concurrent Session 4 Marine Pollution in the Mediterranean(Croatia DPSIR Framework for Adriatic Sturgeon)

Abbey Lehigh, Colorado State University
Sam Merino-Herzog, Colorado State University
Soph Corioso, Colorado State University
Kennalyn Peterson, Colorado State University

4:00 PM

An investigation on human actions effects on the Mediterranean ecosystem, looking specifically at the effects on the Adriatic Sturgeon. As human populations in the area continue to increase and seek opportunities to reverse the harm of traditionally unsustainable practices, it is valuable to consider ecological indicators and how their population dynamics can be interpreted to better understand environmental harms. Using the DPSIR (driver, pressure, state, impact, response) evaluation format we seek to better understand what is causing the population decline of the Adriatic Sturgeon and what responses the country of Croatia, and the EU, have taken to reverse these harms.

Concurrent Session 5 Singapore DPSIR

Allie Lawler, Colorado State University
Avery Ackelbein, Colorado State University
Kristin Karashinski, Colorado State University
Leah Mendoza, Colorado State University

4:00 PM

The Singapore freshwater crab is an ecological indicator for Singapore that is vulnerable to climate change effects such as saltwater intrusion. In response, Singapore has committed to a set of NDCs that can be linked to SDGs the country also has to further prevent climate related disruptions to species like the Singapore freshwater crab. This project will explore the connections made between the Singapore freshwater crab and other aspects of sustainability in Singapore through a DPSIR framework to go into more depth on these connections and the future of sustainability and meeting climate action goals in Singapore.

4:10 PM

Concurrent Session 1 The Togo Slippery Frog and DPSIR Frameworks

Aiden Franklin, Colorado State University
Ben Walker, Colorado State University
Caroline Spirit, Colorado State University
Diego Tovar, Colorado State University

4:10 PM

Our presentation will demonstrate how the Togo Slippery Frog plays an important role in both socio-economic and environmental factors of Togo. These include conservation efforts to restore forests and creating protected areas. This will impact eco-tourism, biodiversity loss and forest fragmentation, as well as agricultural practices. The presentation will also dive deeper into drivers and pressures, such as logging, harvesting, and hunting. The Togo Slippery Frog plays a crucial role in Togo and will be investigated through trends and analysis.

Concurrent Session 2 The Red Colobus of Nigeria – A DPSIR Analysis

Helen Flynn, Colorado State University
Abigail Hall, Colorado State University
Keana Shadwell, Colorado State University
Natasha Dana, Colorado State University

4:10 PM

Studying endangered species is vital in understanding the state of ecosystems and socio-ecological dynamics. Via a DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) analysis, we explored the state of the critically endangered Piliocolobus Epieni, or the Niger Delta Red Colobus. The main pressure on the species is habitat loss, and the driver of this pressure is human development. Pressures have resulted in habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss, and human health implications. However, the species is still in decline. In response, the community in the area is supporting conservation and regulations, and more research is being conducted.

Concurrent Session 3 Cooking to Connect – Food Education Through a Sustainability Lens

Jessica Cordaro, University of Wisconsin

4:10 PM

Take a bite into a project-based learning experience that takes place in the kitchen. See how cyber school students learn cooking skills, content knowledge and how to create a sustainable future while examining the impact of food on the environment and making recipes to reduce food waste.

Concurrent Session 4 Human Impacts on the Southern Lapwing: a DPSIR Framework

Natalie Fitzpatrick, Colorado State University
Natalie Fitzpatrick, Colorado State University
Kendall Murphy, Colorado State University
Spencer Tenant, Colorado State University

4:10 PM

The Southern Lapwing is the national bird in Uruguay. There are drivers in Uruguay such as agricultural practices, tourism, and expansion of industry that directly impacts this species. Agricultural practices lead to land use change and soil erosion and Southern Lapwing rely on this land to build their nests on and the land is being compromised by industrialization. The state of Uruguay reflects the industrial practices through habitat loss, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise, etc. The Southern Lapwing is increasingly at risk since their habitat and resources they rely on is being degraded by human activities.

Concurrent Session 5 Austrian DPSIR and NDCs

Monserrat Rodriguez, Colorado State University
Cody Bingham, Colorado State University
Mae Tice, Colorado State University
Kaitlyn Weber, Colorado State University

4:10 PM

The DPSIR model relates an Austrian species, the golden eagle, to Austria’s Nationally Determined Contributions as outlined by the European Union’s Sustainable Development Goals. This poster discusses the cultural significance of this ecological indicator species and relates that to the sustainability efforts happening within Austria. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that closely relate to our ecological indicator include 16: Life on Land, 13: Climate Action, and 7: Affordable and Clean Energy. Austria’s Nationally Determined Contributions also closely relate to these chosen SDGs that are listed above.

4:20 PM

Concurrent Session 1 Pollution in the Arctic: Oil and gas extraction on the continental shelf as a major contributor

Anna Shapulenko, United Ward Colleges
Ekaterina Borshchevskaia, Moscow State University
Erdni Mangutov, Saint Petersburg State University

4:20 PM

The pollution in the Arctic region is partly generated by offshore hydrocarbon projects. The core of the problem is gas flaring which is responsible for rising black carbon emissions in the region. We examined oil spills and other accidents leading to the release of pollutants. The history of the problem was overviewed, the scale and dynamics were assessed. The main consequences with a primer focus on biodiversity and indigenous peoples were analyzed. Finally, we propose several measures to resolve this issue, including the promotion of bird rehabilitation centers, raising awareness on the health problems caused by pollution among indigenous peoples, as well as improving oil spill response systems.

Concurrent Session 2 Effects of Habitat Loss on Portugal’s Prunus lusitanica subsp. Azorica

Mo Chen, Colorado State University
Miguel Solis Garcia, Colorado State University
Samuel Britton, Colorado State University
Samantha Gill, Colorado State University

4:20 PM

Our presentation will focus on the endangered species Prunus lusitanica subsp. azorica which is found in the Azores region of Portugal. The plant is severely threatened in this area by habitat loss and fragmentation that is caused by extreme forest fires in the area as well as the logging and timber industry. It would be a devastating loss of a native species as well have effects on the other native animals that rely on this plant.

Concurrent Session 3 Modelling Soil Erosion Using the Revised Universal Soil Equation Model (RUSLE) in Anambra, Nigeria

Christopher U. Ezeh, Kswame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

4:20 PM

Soil erosion is a major environmental problem ravaging Anambra, Nigeria. The soil loss was assessed via a RUSLE Model integrated into a GIS environment. The annual soil loss in the area ranges from 0 to over 5000 tha-1yr-1 with an annual mean of 18.9 tha-1yr-1. It shows that severe erosion occurs in the central, southern and eastern parts of the area. The areas within the tolerable erosion rates are about 65.64% (3179.6 km2) of the area while about 28.03% (1357.77 km2) is under extreme soil erosion. However, there are very wide variations in the soil erosion across the area with a standard deviation of 88.6 tha-1yr-1. Thus, the severe soil degradation going on in the area calls for immediate and sustainable intervention to conserve the soil.

Concurrent Session 4 The Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura) as an Ecological Indicator in The DPSIR Framework for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas

Alexis Tanner, Colorado State University
Dasha Petrova, Colorado State University
Aubry Sapp, Colorado State University
Tierra Stansbury, Colorado State University

4:20 PM

A DPSIR—which stands for – drivers-pressures-state-impact-response – is a framework for modeling the interactions between social and environmental factors. It is an aid in understanding the influencing factors in a state or country, interconnectedness of social-ecological systems and can inform policymakers in their decision-making process. Using The Bahamas’ Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, and other sources, we have crafted a DPSIR network model for The Commonwealth of the Bahamas that lays out the current conditions, influences, and responses of the small island developing state.

Concurrent Session 5 Comoros Mongoose Lemur

Owen Eastberg, Colorado State University
Andrew Jussila, Colorado State University
Noah Nosek, Colorado State University
Weinan Zhao, Colorado State University

4:20 PM

We will be speaking on the Mongoose Lemur of Comoros, which is a critically endangered species. The species is a great contributor to the ecosystems it inhabits, so it is an important species to preserve. The species is being threatened by numerous things, and it is receiving very little to no protection from local agencies.

4:30 PM

Concurrent Session 1 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education

Mariia Goncharova, Moscow State University

4:30 PM

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many life spheres of the world community bringing huge losses and inconveniences, the consequences of which we will still struggle with in the near future. One of these consequences was a severe blow to the educational system, which led to the aggravation of existing problems as well as further increases in inequality to students. I would like to draw attention to some key consequences, thereby once again drawing attention to this problem and showing how serious the consequences that we need to deal with are.

Concurrent Session 2 Climate Change and Nubian Ibex of Egypt

Angelica Andrade, Colorado State University
Stojan Hansen, Colorado State University
Lexi Hersh, Colorado State University
Kade Rogers, Colorado State University
Lauren Balsley, Colorado State University

4:30 PM

The Nubian Ibex is native to the North Western corner of Africa stretching into the Arabian Peninsula and is listed as a ‘Vulnerable’ species on the IUCN Red List. Utilizing the DPSIR framework, the Nubian Ibex can be protected and allowed to regrow in a way that not only benefits the animal itself, but also the health of other species that coexist alongside the ibex. Large-scale conservation efforts are imperative for maintaining human-environment relationships in order to ensure sustainable use of all ecosystem goods and services, and important animals like the Ibex serve as indicators of sustainability and environmental health.

Concurrent Session 3 Connecting a DPSIR model and SDGs to the Sierra Leone Prinia

Jack Martinus, Colorado State University
Miles Innes, Colorado State University
Cameron Anderson, Colorado State University
Brian Saski, Colorado State University

4:30 PM

Sierra Leone is a West African country that is home to eight million people. As a developing country with an increasing population, it faces the challenges of creating affordable yet sustainable infrastructure, updating its agricultural sector, and combating the implications of climate change. Focusing on the endangered Sierra Leone Prinia (Schistolais leontica) as an indicator species, these challenges can be assessed through a DPSIR model. Connecting the indicator species, DPSIR model, and Sustainable Development Goals will create appropriate solutions for Sierra Leone to develop sustainably.

Concurrent Session 4 Albanian Tulip and Sustainable Development

Paige Lewis, Colorado State University
Fiona Hynes, Colorado State University
Gabe Farrier, Colorado State University
Tony Cabrales, Colorado State University

4:30 PM

As a developing country, Albania still relies heavily upon coal and agriculture. Drivers such as coal mining, deforestation and livestock grazing result in increased carbon emissions, reduced freshwater availability and habitat destruction. Land degradation due to soil degradation and erosion as well as reduced water availability pressures the local ecosystem, making it hard for endangered species such as the Albanian tulip to survive. Albania’s main industries, coal and agriculture, have adverse effects globally as well, such as increasing global temperatures, causing species extinction and decreasing soil moisture. In response to these drivers of industry, Albania must adapt to different energy sources and mitigate the adverse effects of agriculture.

Concurrent Session 5 African Wild Dogs as an Ecological Indicator Species In Burkina Faso

Gunnar Wagner, Colorado State University
Katrina Gilman, Colorado State University
Adam Barrett, Colorado State University
Bryce Weinell, Colorado State University

4:30 PM

Burkina Faso is a small, landlocked country in arid West Africa, which is home to an isolated population of the endangered African Wild Dog. Throughout this report, we will explore the current ecological condition of Burkina Faso and work being done in the country to help mitigate ecosystem impacts and establish ecosystem resilience. These concepts will be explored within the context of African Wild Dogs, which we have selected as an ecological indicator species to represent the narrative of climate and adaptation in Burkina Faso.

4:40 PM

Concurrent Session 4 The Mauritius Olive White-Eye

Jenna Wooten, Colorado State University
Blake Buhrer, Colorado State University
LeAnna Warren, Colorado State University
Yujin Bao, Colorado State University

4:40 PM

Given the dramatic decline in the population of the Mauritius Olive white-eye, this species has been listed as critically endangered. This bird is endemic to Mauritius, yet its habitat has been destroyed for infrastructure, introduced species have turned this species into prey and have also taken over this species’ niche. Mauritius has the responsibility and obligation to explore and analyze the correlation between the Mauritius Olive white-eye and SDGs, pressures, drivers, states, impacts, and responses. Previously, this team has perceived this bird as an ecological indicator species: wildlife that gives insight into the surrounding ecosystem’s health. We will focus on the analysis of the Mauritius Olive white-eye in combination with SDG 13: Climate Action and SDG 16: Life on Land, considering their high relevance to the living environment and conservation issues of this species.

Concurrent Session 5 The Lappet-faced Vulture as an Ecological Indicator of Mali

Amanda McLean, Colorado State University
Brendan Gildea, Colorado State University
Kaleigh Kennedy, Colorado State University
Emilijia Miskinyte, Colorado State University

4:40 PM

We explore the Lappet-faced vulture as an ecological indicator of climate change effects in Mali. We use the DPSIR framework to assess how this species can give insight on the effects of climate change and other issues.

5:00 PM

Session 4 Global Action Leadership Dialogue 2

Stacy Halliday, Bevridge & Diamond, P.C.
Valerie Small, Trees, Water & People

5:00 PM

Students engaged in dialogue with global leaders on topics of corporate social responsibility, environmental justice, and equity. What levers can we use to create change?

Moderated by Connor McCarty and Kaydee Barker, Colorado State University

5:40 PM

Session 5 Open Discussion

Youth Environmental Alliance in Higher Education

5:40 PM

Youth participants asked questions about how they can get involved in volunteering, action, and other climate-related opportunities.

– Opportunities for climate action at “home”
– Starting and/or strengthening an impactful career in sustainability/climate work
– Power of networking
– Agency and the growing power of young people to affect change

Moderated by Jacob Genuise and Cody Sanford, Colorado State University, and Eugene Agyei, Michigan Technical University

6:00 PM

Poster - Analyzing the “Eco” in Ecotourism: Costs and Benefits of South American Case Studies

Sydney Cash, Indiana University
Delia Novak, Indiana University
Sarah Pritchett, Indiana University
Rocco Tedesco, Indiana University

6:00 PM

While frequently touted as an effective mechanism for environmental conservation and community development, the burgeoning ecotourism industry and its impacts on ecological health and sociocultural preservation require further scrutiny. The most successful examples of ecotourism offer “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people” (Stem et al., 2003, p. 323). Over time, however, ecotourism projects can also provoke negative impacts like increased habitat disturbance, solid waste generation, and the erosion of cultural autonomy. We seek to explore this multifaceted industry by analyzing different South American case studies of ecotourism projects and how they intersect with indigenous communities, ecological restoration, and economic growth.

Poster - Coral Reef Restoration

Bennett Schramko, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Unfortunately, humans have impacted coral reefs in many different negative ways. The most obvious way we have destroyed coral reefs is by polluting them. Whether it’s by trash debris by everyday people or sewage/oil from different treatment plant operation companies, we are slowly destroying the once beautiful coral reefs. According to research done by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the world has lost 30 to 50 percent of its coral reefs already. With almost half of the coral reefs lost, tropical reef ecosystems could face extinction by the end of the century. Ways to restore the reefs include planting some nursery-grown corals and building coral resilience to threats such as pollution. These actions would help sustain these new reefs.

Poster - Ecobricking, A Way to Recycle At Home

Eva Ladd, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Plastic is one of the world’s most common trash and recyclable waste. Improper disposal can lead to great environmental harm. The question then becomes how do we deal with disposal? “Once in the environment, plastic breaks down into smaller and smaller particles that attract toxic chemicals, are ingested by wildlife on land and in the ocean, and contaminated our food way,” (Maqueda, 2010). One solution is ecobricking—where plastic bottles are filled with non-biodegradable plastic in order to promote plastic sequestration and stop their toxins being released into the environment. Ecobricks can be used to create garden walls, benches, etc.

Poster - How Urban Gardening Can Contribute to Sustainable Cities and Communities

Sam Shafer, Indiana University
Thomas Vlasic, Indiana University
Darby Williams, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Urban gardening helps to create inclusive and sustainable cities through decreasing air pollution, reducing waste, and supporting the natural habitat suppressed by the city. Urban gardening contributes to sustainable communities by providing cheap/easy access to healthy food, self-sufficiency, and a strengthened sense of community.

Poster - Investigating the Relationship Between Green Spaces and their Impacts on Marginalized Communities

Darian Belcher, Indiana University
Casey Hallenbeck, Indiana University
Emma Milton, Indiana University
Anna Tarner, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Greenspaces are natural areas that are set apart for recreation/leisure within a community. The purpose of these spaces includes promoting healthy habits and increasing the wellbeing of all users. However, research has identified barriers that negatively impact usage of greenspaces within marginalized communities. According to Checker (2011), “marginalized and vulnerable people tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental harm… and typically have less access to environmental benefits” (p. 3). Individuals, specifically People of Color (POC), feel unwelcome in public spaces, along with experiencing unfair land distribution and lack of resources. There must be reform in the way that greenspaces are viewed.

Poster - Microplastics in Us

Bryson Oliver, Indiana University
Ben Peters, Indiana University
Brett Leonard, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Microplastics, characterized as particles smaller than 5 mm, have become increasingly common in waterways, food sources, as well as the end-consumers such as humans. These plastics can be increasingly harmful, especially the amount within humans. The dangers are not fully known yet to humans, but there should be concern. One area of concern should be the cerebral cells in humans (Schirinzi et al., 2017).

Poster - Noise Pollution: The Forgotten Environmental Hazard

Michael Dowd, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Environmental noise pollution is a pervasive problem in America today. Americans have little in their arsenal against noise pollution and the threat it poses to human health. Yet, historically it has been treated as a distant last in comparison to other types of environmental pollutants. Both acute and chronic exposure to environmental noise pollution negatively impact human health and can lead to adverse long-term effects (Hammer et al., 2014, p. 116). Solutions to improve human health, such as direct regulation and altering the built environment to lower human exposure to environmental noise, need to be driven by policy.

Poster - Redlining and a Legacy of Environmental Racism

Brittany Sanders, Indiana University
Marina Cridge, Indiana University
Stephanie Perez, Indiana University
Lizbeth Roque, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Environmental racism is the disproportionate disadvantages that people of a minority background face due to systemic practices regarding the environment. One of the largest contributors was redlining which laid the foundation for current environmental injustices such as reduced air quality within communities of color, specifically Black Americans. Considering structural racism as a factor in low community environmental health, developing guidelines that strive to correct past policies, as well as enforcing regulations, will go a long way towards ending environmental racism.

Poster - Reducing Pollution in Indiana: Strategies for Success

Austin Crouch, Indiana University
Sarah VanHoosier, Indiana University
Lauren Chasteen, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Indiana has experienced, and is still experiencing, many different forms of pollution; this issue is not only negatively affecting the environment, but also the health of Indiana residents. The Chicago Tribune states, “Indiana leads the nation in toxic pollution emitted per square mile, according to an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report” (Colias-Pete, 2021). This is a widespread issue affecting the state and its residents in many ways. One way to address this would be to work with affected communities and educating them on the dangers of pollution as well as the best ways to mitigate the issues. Additionally, working with companies to find innovative options can help to reduce their pollutant output while working towards fixing the damage they have already done.

Poster - Sustainability and Mental Health Benefits of Urban Greening/Infrastructure

Gibson Burdett, Indiana University
Joey Copeland, Indiana University
Anna Noel, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Cities are centers of environmental pollution and experience higher percentages of mental health issues. Concrete and metal make up the majority of cities, contributing to problems such as runoff, increased carbon emissions, and depression. Some of the most effective methods of reducing carbon emissions and storm water control come from natural ecosystems. There has also been a direct link between mental health benefits and green spaces (Coutts, 2015). Green infrastructure such as bioswales and green roofs can address natural methods of flood and carbon control, while also providing a green getaway from the city to improve mental health.

Poster - Sustainability Impacts of the Fast Fashion Industry

Ali Brewer, Indiana University
Abby Ericson, Indiana University
Amanda Isaacson, Indiana University
Lilly Rust, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Due to overconsumption, increased demand, and micro-seasons in the fashion industry, clothes are being rapidly produced— harming both human and environmental health. These negative impacts are seen at every stage of the fast fashion cycle, from textile production to the end-user or landfill. As the industry continues to turnover fashion trends with more and more frequency, these consequences continue to intensify. Fashion brands are now producing almost twice the amount of clothing today compared with before the year 2000 (Niinimäki, et al., 2020). However, as awareness improves, companies and consumers are seeking out ways to mitigate their environmental impacts.

Poster - The Effects of Noise Pollution on Human and Environmental Health

India Street, Indiana University
Kamebry Wagner, Indiana University
Emma Milton, Indiana University
Maggie Gardner, Indiana University
Molly Creech, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Noise pollution is harmful to both human health and nature. Environmental noise pollution is a form of air pollution and is a threat to health and well-being (Jariwala et al., 2017). Methods of combatting noise pollution are many. Methods studied here include: depressing freeways and arterial roads below the level of adjoining residential areas; using roadside noise barriers; creating maximum separation between roads and new buildings; siting high-rise buildings at the front of a development, providing acoustic shielding for any low-rise buildings; and using natural topographic features to the best acoustic advantage.

Poster - Urban Farming for Environmental Justice

Will Cannon, Indiana University
Julia Ramirez, Indiana University

6:00 PM

Urban areas, especially those with large populations of marginalized groups, suffer from issues such as “grocery red-lining” and increased food inaccessibility. Both are forms of Environmental Injustice. Direct and Indirect consequences of Environmental Injustice include a decline in mental and physical health, sense of community, environmental education, and the many more long-term effects. According to a study by the Chicago Department of Public health, surveying locations in different cities found that in the Chicago lawn neighborhood of Chicago only 37% of food stores sell fresh produce (Block et al. 2005). By encouraging urban gardening, we can help people have greater access to fresh produce.