Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Master's Report

Degree Name

Master of Science in Forestry (MS)

Administrative Home Department

College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science

Advisor 1

Yvette L. Dickinson

Committee Member 1

Christopher R. Webster

Committee Member 2

Blair D. Orr


Previous studies have investigated how the abundance of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) impacts tree regeneration, but few have linked these impacts to location within canopy openings with a legacy tree. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the presence, abundance, and location of raspberries within openings containing legacy trees and the resulting impacts on tree regeneration. During the winter of 2003, 49 openings were created of three sizes: small, medium, large and 20 reference single-tree selection sites in a northern hardwood stand in Ford Forest near Alberta, Michigan. Tree regeneration and vegetative species cover were recorded in 2005 and were re-sampled in 2016. Results show raspberries not only persisted, but increased throughout the time-period. In addition, raspberry abundance varied by location within the openings. Furthermore, high abundance of raspberries was shown to decrease total tree seedling count. However, high abundance of raspberry did not hinder the growth of saplings within treatment areas. These results provide silviculturists beneficial information when deciding if raspberry control is necessary.