Cadmium oxide nanoparticles from new organometallic Cd(II)-Schiff base complex and in vitro biological potentials: dual S. aureus and E. coli DNA gyrase inhibition by the precursors via in silico binding modes’ study

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At the nanoscale level, several biological processes take place, owing to the potential that engineered nanomaterials might interrelate with bio-molecules and cellular procedures. This study aimed to synthesize cadmium oxide nanoparticles via a one-step calcination process of tetradentate Schiff base-Cd(II) complex at different temperature ranges. The as-synthesized compounds were carried out via a viz UV–visible, elemental analysis, 1H NMR, molar conductivity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The band gap energy and average particle sizes of the CdO particles are respectively (2.69 eV, 3.54 eV), 26.88 nm for CdO@250, and (3.20 eV, 3.57 eV), 25.67 nm for CdO@300, while CdO@350 exhibited the 3.78 eV and 28.42 nm values. The antioxidant accomplishments of the test samples through the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals showed CdO@300 to possess (IC50 = 5.18 ± 0.56 µg/mL). Similarly, the as-synthesized CdO nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli as compared to the corresponding Cd-HMB and ligand (HMB), while ciprofloxacin acted as a standard antibiotic. Furthermore, HMB and its complex Cd-HMB were docked against the DNA gyrase enzymes of S. aureus (PDB IDs: 5CDQ) and E. coli (PDB IDs: 6F86) as receptors. The binding sites docking results showed that the binding energies of HMB and Cd-HMB to 5CDQ ranged from − 3.44 to − 4.99 kcal/mol and from − 6.45 to − 6.64 kcal/mol, while the binding energies related to the target 6F86 are in the ranges of (− 3.64, − 4.76) kcal/mol and (− 6.08, − 6.09) kcal/mol respectively. Therefore, the significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the ligand (HMB), Cd-HMB, and CdO NPs review the broad application prospects of these compounds as therapeutic agents for wide-ranging biomedical applications.

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Research on Chemical Intermediates