Role of Nanotechnology in Medicine: Opportunities and Challenges

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



Department of Chemistry


Most of the buzz surrounding the word “nanotechnology” has been on over the last 15–20 years. The application of nanotechnology in diverse fields is based on two motives. Firstly, an increasing surface/volume ratio, nanoparticles become more active. Secondly, a smaller particle size results in greater quantum confinement which is responsible for the changes in electron mobility, effective mass, relative dielectric constant, and optical properties. Application of nanotechnology in medicine (nanomedicine) includes Nanodiagnosis, Nano therapy (controlling drug delivery), and Remedial (renovated) medicine. Nano diagnosis is the evolution of nanodevices and image devices to detect and analyze diseased conditions, cellular malfunction, and unmoral cells. Nano therapy assigns effective nano-systems by performing a more effective therapy while minimizing side effects while renovated medicine aims to repair or reproduce deteriorated tissues and organs using nanotechnology materials. Although nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field, availability of product is far away from reach, this is because of various hurdles at different stages of development. Major hurdles needed to be overcomed include toxicity, production cost, environmental hazards, and accessibility to unreachable far-off areas. The obstacles to growth if overcome can cause ground-breaking modifications in the field of health care and medicine. It is hoped that this chapter will provide updated information useful for material scientists, biotechnologists, pharmacologists, clinicians, researchers in the health sector, or scholars of the allied fields, who have an interest in drug discovery and development, nano-diagnosis, nanobiotechnology, and nanomedicine.

Publication Title

Environmental Science and Engineering