CFD-based optimization of fuel injection strategies in a diesel engine using an adaptive gradient method

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A computationally efficient computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based optimization method with the capability of finding optimal engine operating conditions with respect to emissions and fuel consumption has been developed. The approach taken uses a steepest descent method for an adaptive cost function, where the line search is performed with a backtracking algorithm. The backtracking algorithm utilizes quadratic and cubic polynomials to accelerate the convergence, and the initial backtracking step employs an adaptive step size mechanism which depends on the steepness of the search direction. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method such that the penalty term is stiffened after every line search. The engine simulations are performed with a KIVA-3-based CFD code which is equipped with well-established spray, combustion and emission models. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for a non-road, medium-speed DI diesel engine which, for these simulations, utilizes a multi-orifice, asynchronous injection system. It has been demonstrated that this new injection method has a large potential for reducing emissions while maintaining a low fuel consumption. In addition, this optimization approach is computationally very efficient when good enough initial values are available. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Applied Mathematical Modelling