Improvement of stiffness and energy absorption by harnessing hierarchical interlocking in brittle polymer blocks

Document Type


Publication Date



The objective of the present work is to investigate the possibility of improving both stiffness and energy absorption in interlocking, architectured, brittle polymer blocks through hierarchical design. The interlocking mechanism allows load transfer between two different material blocks by means of contact at the mating surfaces. The contacting surfaces further act as weak interfaces that allow the polymer blocks to fail gradually under different loading conditions. Such controlled failure enhances the energy absorption of the polymer blocks but with a penalty in stiffness. Incorporating hierarchy in the form of another degree of interlocking at the weak interfaces, improves stress transfer between contacting material blocks, thereby, improvement in terms of stiffness and energy absorption can be achieved. In the present work, the effects of hierarchy on the mechanical responses of a single interlocking geometry have been investigated systematically using finite element (FE) analysis and results are validated with experiments. From FE predictions and experiments, presence of two competing failure mechanisms have been observed in the interlock: the pullout of the interlock and brittle fracture of the polymer blocks. It is observed that the hierarchical interface improves the stiffness by restricting sliding between the contacting surfaces. However, such restriction can lead to premature fracture of the polymer blocks that eventually reduces energy absorption of the interlocking mechanism during pullout deformation. It is concluded that the combination of stiffness and energy absorption is optimal when fracture of the polymer blocks is delayed by allowing sufficient sliding at the interfaces.

Publisher's Statement

© 2019 by ASME. Publisher's version of record: https://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4042567

Publication Title

Journal of Applied Mechanics