Date of Award
Open Access Master's Thesis
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MS)
Administrative Home Department
Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Committee Member 1
The heavy-duty diesel engines use a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea injection and a Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX), to meet the US EPA 2010/2013 particulate matter (PM) and NOx emission standards. However, it is not possible to achieve the 2015 California low NOx standards with this arrangement. Hence, there is a need to improve the existing aftertreatment system. This can be achieved by coating the SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), thus combining the PM filtration and NOx reduction functionality into a single device. This reduces the overall volume/weight of the system and provides opportunity for packaging flexibility and improved thermal management along with the possibility of higher NOx reduction with a downstream SCR system.
The SCR catalyst on a DPF used in this study is known as a SCRF® which was supplied by Johnson Matthey and Corning. Previous research on the CPF and SCRF® at MTU highlighted that the reactivity of PM retained in the CPF and SCRF® is higher during loading conditions compared to passive oxidation conditions i.e. when the flow rate of PM entering the CPF or SCRF® is higher in loading conditions compared to the low flow rate and higher PM reaction rate during passive oxidation conditions. A 2013 Cummins ISB engine with a DOC-SCRF® arrangement was used to perform twelve tests (eight tests without urea injection and four tests with urea injection) in order to determine the NO2 assisted passive oxidation performance of the SCRF® under loading conditions with and without urea injection. The primary focus of this study was to carry out Loading Tests with and without Urea injection and measure species concentrations, PM mass retained, exhaust flowrates, substrate temperature distributions, pressure drop across the filter, and to determine the kinetics of NO2 assisted PM oxidation under loading conditions and compare it with kinetics under passive oxidation conditions.
The NO2 assisted passive oxidation performance of the SCRF® was experimentally studied by running the engine at 2400 RPM and four different loads at nominal and reduced rail pressure for 5.5 hours in two stages of loading. These conditions were intended to span the SCRF® inlet temperatures in the range of 264-364oC and inlet NO2 concentrations in the range of 52-120 ppm. Four conditions out of these eight conditions were repeated with the injection of urea in the form of diesel exhaust fluid at a target ammonia to NOx ratio of 1.0 to investigate both the NOx reduction performance, as well as the effect of urea on the NO2 assisted passive oxidation performance.
From the conclusions of the study based on the experimental data, it was found that the cumulative percentage of PM oxidized in the SCRF® increases with the increase in engine load due to higher SCRF® temperatures and NO2 concentrations. On average, the reactions rates with urea injection during loading conditions in the SCRF® are 25% lower compared to the reaction rates without urea injection. The reactivity of PM under loading conditions with and without urea injection is higher compared to the reactivity of PM under passive oxidation with and without urea injection. For a lumped PM oxidation model, a higher pre-exponential for NO2 assisted oxidation is needed for loading as compared to passive oxidation conditions. It was not possible to determine the kinetics of NO2 assisted oxidation of PM under loading conditions from the experimental data using a standard Arrhenius model which lead to the development of a different model for PM oxidation.
A PM oxidation model was developed based on the shrinking core model which keeps the identity of the incoming PM masses in the SCRF® as compared to SCR-F model being developed at MTU which is lumped model for PM oxidation. The PM oxidation model was calibrated to simulate PM oxidation in the SCRF® with a single set of kinetics under wide range of conditions including loading and passive oxidation conditions. The reaction rate results from the PM oxidation model were then applied to the SCR-F model to simulate the pressure drop across SCRF® and the PM retained in the SCRF® for the loading conditions used in this study. The SCR-F model was calibrated using experimental data from Loading Tests w/o Urea to simulate the PM retained within ±2 g and pressure drop across SCRF® within ±0.5 kPa of the experimental data at the end of the test. The calibrated SCR-F model was also used to estimate the cake, wall and channel pressure drop and the PM retained in the cake and wall for the Loading Tests w/o Urea to check the integrity of experimental data and the consistency of the model.
The NO2 assisted kinetics for PM oxidation in the SCRF® without urea injection using the SCR-F model resulted in an activation energy of 96 kJ/gmol and pre-exponential factor of 2.6 m/K-s for the cake and 1.8 m/K-s for the wall. An analysis of the results from the SCR-F model suggests that for all the conditions, 84-92% of the total PM retained was in the PM cake layer and the oxidation in the PM cake layer accounted for 72-84% of the total PM mass oxidized during loading.
Jadav, Abhishek, "EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF PARTICULATE MATTER OXIDATION UNDER LOADING CONDITIONS FOR A SCR CATALYST ON A DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER", Open Access Master's Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2018.