Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)

Administrative Home Department

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Advisor 1

Jeffrey B. Burl

Committee Member 1

Bo Chen

Committee Member 2

Wayne W. Weaver

Committee Member 3

John E. Pakkala


The equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is a well-known energy management strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). ECMS is very computationally efficient since it yields an instantaneous optimal control. ECMS has been shown to minimize fuel consumption under certain conditions. But, minimizing the fuel consumption often leads to excessive battery damage. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a real-time implementable optimal energy management strategy which improves both the fuel economy and battery aging for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by using ECMS. This work introduces a new optimal control problem where the cost function includes terms for both fuel consumption and battery aging. The Ah-throughput method is used to quantify battery aging. ECMS (with the appropriate equivalence factor) is shown to also minimize the cost function that incorporates battery aging. Finding the appropriate equivalence factor often required prior knowledge of the entire drive cycle. While using the appropriate equivalence factor might miss the opportunities for fuel savings under certain conditions. Therefore, an adaptive control law of equivalence factor called Catch Energy Saving Opportunity (CESO) has been introduced in this work to make the proposed aging ECMS real-time implementable.

In order to better understand the impact of the developed optimal strategies on battery aging in HEVs, systematic analysis has been performed to find relations between fuel economy, battery aging and the optimization decisions when using ECMS. Therefore, the varies equivalence factors, state of charge constraints and battery temperatures are observed and analyzed under different Combined Drive-cycles (CDs). The CDs are formulated to test the energy management strategy and battery aging with weights on city and highway drive. In addition, rule-based control in charge-depletion mode aimed to improve battery aging has been simulated in a HEV truck. The simulation results show that, the fuel consumed and battery aging degradation during varied operation could be significantly improved by using a simple control rule in charge-depletion mode. This further indicates the benefits of implementing a battery aging term which impacts the control decision in charge-sustaining ECMS.

Based on the analysis results, an aging ECMS has been developed by adding a battery aging term as a cost to the battery. The simulation results showed that this optimal energy management strategy improves battery aging significantly with little or no penalty in fuel economy. In addition, aging CESO ECMS, a real-time optimal strategy, has been developed based on the proposed aging ECMS. The simulation results show that aging CESO ECMS improvs upon the basic aging ECMS performance.