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A parametric excitation dynamic model is used for a three degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) wave energy converter. Since the heave motion is uncoupled from the pitch and surge modes, the pitch-surge equations of motion can be treated as a linear time varying system, or a linear system with parametric excitation. In such case the parametric exciting frequency can be tuned to twice the natural frequency of the system for higher energy harvesting. A parametric excited 3-DOF wave energy converter can harvest more power, for both regular and irregular waves, compared to the linear 3-DOF. For example, in a Bretschneider wave, the harvested energy in the three modes is about 3.8 times the energy harvested in the heave mode alone; while the same device produces about 3.1 times the heave mode energy when using a linear 3-DOF model.

Patent Number

US 10,415,537 B2


National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC


Michigan Technological University


South Dakota Board of Regents

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Engineering Mechanics | Mechanical Engineering


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Model predictive control of parametric excited pitch-surge modes in wave energy converters



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