Low-sampling frequency two-terminal traveling wave-based overhead transmission line protection

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Digital fault recorders (DFRs) and some conventional relays operate typically with sampling frequencies up to a few kHz. Conversely, traveling wave (TW)-based methods are usually designed to operate at sampling frequencies in the order of MHz. However, this paper demonstrates that two-terminal TW-based protection that considers the effects of the sampling frequency and TW propagation velocity uncertainties can protect transmission lines using sampling frequencies of a few kHz instead of MHz. This demonstration considers a performance validation based on challenging real-world faults recorded in transmission lines equipped with DFRs operating with a sampling frequency of 15,360 Hz. The low-sampling frequency two-terminal TW protection was implemented in hardware as a protective relay to evaluate actual data in real-time analysis, representing a significant step toward the practical application of the TW concept readily available in real protection devices with a low-sampling frequency.

Publication Title

Electric Power Systems Research