Experimental Study and Analysis of Ultra-Low Temperature Fuel Spray With a Heavy-Duty Injector Under Vaporizing Conditions

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


Despite efficiency and emission benefits, the Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) technology faces a key technical risk of deteriorated cold start performance. This study aims to provide experimental dataset and analysis of fuel sprays under ultra-low temperature (as low as −40 °C) adapted for GCI applications. Both RON92 gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) were tested in this study to investigate the effects of fuel properties and ambient conditions on the spray vaporization and mixing processes. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel with various fuel temperatures, injection pressures, ambient densities, and charge gas temperatures, captured by simultaneous Mie scattering and schlieren imaging. A novel fuel chilling setup was introduced to control the fuel reservoir temperature by circulating of liquid-nitrogen-cooled methanol. Vapor penetration, liquid penetration, and spray cone angle from a heavy-duty multi-hole injector were obtained through image processing. The results showed comparable vapor penetration between RON92 and ULSD even with different fuel temperatures and charge gas temperatures. However, RON92 and ULSD differs in terms of liquid penetration at different ambient charge gas temperatures due to their different volatility. RON92 gasoline started to present saturated liquid length at 700K, while ULSD needed a higher temperature at 900K. A semi-quantitative analysis was practiced using single component surrogates to highlight the fuel volatility effect.

Publication Title

Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference