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In this review, we examine recent progress using boron nitride (BN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanostructures for electronic, energy, biomedical, and environmental applications. The scope of coverage includes zero-, one-, and two-dimensional nanostructures such as BN nanosheets, BN nanotubes, BN quantum dots, MoS nanosheets, and MoS quantum dots. These materials have sizable bandgaps, differentiating them from other metallic nanostructures or small-bandgap materials. We observed two interesting trends: (1) an increase in applications that use heterogeneous materials by combining BN and MoS nanostructures with other nanomaterials, and (2) strong research interest in environmental applications. Last, we encourage researchers to study how to remove nanomaterials from air, soil, and water contaminated with nanomaterials. As nanotechnology proceeds into various applications, environmental contamination is inevitable and must be addressed. Otherwise, nanomaterials will go into our food chain much like microplastics.

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