Comparison of Multi-metallic Nanoparticles-Alternative Antibacterial Agent: Understanding the Role of Their Antibacterial Properties

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Department of Physics


The rise of antibiotic-resistant infectious diseases caused by various bacterial pathogens has emerged as a major global health concern. As a result, there has been a growing effort to develop innovative antimicrobial materials as an alternative solution to combat multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Among these materials, metal nanoparticles (MNPs), particularly multi-metallic nanoparticles (MMNPs), have been found to demonstrate promising potential in fighting against antimicrobial resistance. The unique physiochemical properties and excellent biocompatibility of MMNPs contribute to their remarkable antimicrobial activity. MMNPs, composed of multiple metals, exhibit diverse electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. These multifunctional characteristics, including size, shape, surface area to volume ratio, and surface charge potential, facilitate favorable interactions with bacterial cell membranes. Consequently, MMNPs can disrupt the bacteria cell membrane, metal ion release, biomolecule damage, induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cause protein dysfunction, and inflict DNA damage within the bacterial host’s environment. This scientific review aims to provide a comprehensive summary and comparison of research progress concerning the antibacterial activities of multi-metallic nanoparticles, as well as their synergistic effects. Additionally, the scientific review elucidates the mechanisms through which MMNPs exert their antibacterial effects. Significant emphasis has been placed on recent promising advances of MMNPs that aid in overcoming antibacterial resistance. The physiochemical and multifunctional properties of MMNPs play a pivotal role in determining their effectiveness against bacterial infections. By integrating current knowledge on the antibacterial activities of MMNPs, this scientific review offers valuable insights into the potential applications of MMNPs in combating bacterial infections.

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Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials