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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


As additive manufacturing rapidly expands the number of materials including waste plastics and composites, there is an urgent need to reduce the experimental time needed to identify optimized printing parameters for novel materials. Computational intelligence (CI) in general and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms in particular have been shown to accelerate finding optimal printing parameters. Unfortunately, the implementation of CI has been prohibitively complex for noncomputer scientists. To overcome these limitations, this article develops, tests, and validates PSO Experimenter, an easy-to-use open-source platform based around the PSO algorithm and applies it to optimizing recycled materials. Specifically, PSO Experimenter is used to find optimal printing parameters for a relatively unexplored potential distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) material that is widely available: low-density polyethylene (LDPE). LDPE has been used to make filament, but in this study for the first time it was used in the open source fused particle fabrication/fused granular fabrication system. PSO Experimenter successfully identified functional printing parameters for this challenging-to-print waste plastic. The results indicate that PSO Experimenter can provide 97% reduction in research time for 3D printing parameter optimization. It is concluded that the PSO Experimenter is a user-friendly and effective free software for finding ideal parameters for the burgeoning challenge of DRAM as well as a wide range of other fields and processes.

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© Shane Oberloier et al. 2022; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title

3D printing and additive manufacturing

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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