Effect of Blood Pressure Levels on Sinus Hemodynamics in Relation to Calcification After Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement

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Department of Biomedical Engineering; Health Research Institute; Institute of Computing and Cybersystems


Coexisting hypertension and aortic stenosis are common. Some studies showed that elevated blood pressures may be associated with progression of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) while others showed no correlation. Flow dynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva are considered key factors in the progression of CAVD. While the relationship between hemodynamics and CAVD is not yet fully understood, it has been demonstrated that they are tightly correlated. This study aims to investigate the effect of changing systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, respectively) on sinus hemodynamics in relation to potential initiation or progression of CAVD after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Evolut R, SAPIEN 3 and Magna valves were deployed in an aortic root under pulsatile conditions. Using particle image velocimetry, the hemodynamics in the sinus were assessed. The velocity, vorticity, circulation ([Formula: see text] and shear stress were calculated. This study shows that under elevated SBP and DBP, velocity, vorticity, and shear stress nearby the leaflets increased. Additionally, larger fluctuations of [Formula: see text] and area under the curve throughout the cardiac cycle were observed. Elevated blood pressures are associated with higher velocity, vorticity, and shear stress near the leaflets which may initiate or accelerate pro-calcific changes in the prosthetic leaflets leading to bioprosthetic valve degeneration.

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Annals of biomedical engineering