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Department of Materials Science and Engineering


Most spheroidal graphite irons (SGIs) have a matrix consisting of ferrite, pearlite, or a mix of the two. To achieve the desired matrix composition, pearlite promoters such as Mn, Cu, or Sn, are added to the molten metal. Among these elements, Sn is the most potent pearlite promoter. However, each has a different impact on the solidification, graphite precipitation, eutectoid transformation, and ultimately the final structure of the material. Research has shown that B promotes ferrite in fully pearlitic grades where Cu and Mn were used to promote pearlite. The present work investigates the effect of B in SGI with additions of Sn, Cu, and Mn, and the effects of varying amounts of the different pearlite promoters on the matrix composition. The results show that Mn alone at levels of approximately 0.9 wt% is not enough to promote a fully pearlitic matrix, while 0.5 wt% Cu combined with 0.67 wt% Mn is sufficient. Likewise, a fully pearlitic microstructure can be obtained by alloying with 0.06 wt% Sn and 0.67 wt% Mn. B was found to promote ferrite in fully pearlitic SGI alloyed with Sn or Cu. However, in the absence of those elements, B promoted pearlite when alloyed with just Mn. Graphite protrusions were observed on the graphite nodule surface only for B-added alloys with Sn and Cu. In these cases, it is believed B promotes ferrite by changing the growth mechanism of graphite after solidification from spherical to lamellar. However, a different graphite morphology is observed when B is added with just Mn. Thermal analysis data is in agreement with the microstructural observations regarding the ferrite promoting effect of B.

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International Journal of Metalcasting

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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