Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Materials Science and Engineering


Limnoperna fortunei, the golden mussel, is a bivalve mollusk considered an invader in South America. This species is responsible for ecological and economic damages due to its voluminous fouling capability. Chemical biocides such as MXD-100™ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) are often used to control L. fortunei infestations in hydraulic systems. Thus, we proposed to investigate the effects of different periods (24, 48 and 72 h) of exposure to MXD-100™ (0.56 mg L−1) and NaDCC (1.5 mg L−1) on the gills of L. fortunei through morphological and molecular analyses. NaDCC promoted progressive morphological changes during the analyzed periods and only an upregulation of SOD and HSP70 expression during the first 24 h of exposure. MXD-100™ led to severe morphological changes from the first period of exposure, in addition to an upregulation of SOD, CAT, HSP70 and CYP expression during the first 24 h. In contrast, MXD-100™ led to a downregulation of CAT transcription between 24 and 48 h. In static conditions, NaDCC causes lethal damage after 72 h of exposure, and that exposure needs to be continuous to achieve the control of the species. Meanwhile, the MXD-100™ treatment presented several effects during the first 24 h, showing acute toxicity in a shorter period of time.

Publisher's Statement

Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Publisher's PDF