Oxygen releasing patches based on carbohydrate polymer and protein hydrogels for diabetic wound healing: A review

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Department of Biomedical Engineering


Diabetic wounds are among the major healthcare challenges, consuming billions of dollars of resources and resulting in high numbers of morbidity and mortality every year. Lack of sufficient oxygen supply is one of the most dominant causes of impaired healing in diabetic wounds. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of delivering oxygen at the diabetic wound site, including enhanced angiogenesis, antibacterial and cell proliferation activities. However, prolonged and sustained delivery of oxygen to improve the wound healing process has remained a major challenge due to rapid release of oxygen from oxygen sources and limited penetration of oxygen into deep skin tissues. Hydrogels made from sugar-based polymers such as chitosan and hyaluronic acid, and proteins such as gelatin, collagen and hemoglobin have been widely used to deliver oxygen in a sustained delivery mode. This review presents an overview of the recent advances in oxygen releasing hydrogel based patches as a therapeutic modality to enhance diabetic wound healing. Various types of oxygen releasing wound healing patch have been discussed along with their fabrication method, release profile, cytocompatibility and in vivo results. We also briefly discuss the challenges and prospects related to the application of oxygen releasing biomaterials as wound healing therapeutics.

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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules