Advances in TEE-Centric Intraprocedural Multimodal Image Guidance for Congenital and Structural Heart Disease

Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Biomedical Engineering


Percutaneous interventions are gaining rapid acceptance in cardiology and revolutionizing the treatment of structural heart disease (SHD). As new percutaneous procedures of SHD are being developed, their associated complexity and anatomical variability demand a high-resolution special understanding for intraprocedural image guidance. During the last decade, three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become one of the most accessed imaging methods for structural interventions. Although 3D-TEE can assess cardiac structures and functions in real-time, its limitations (e.g., limited field of view, image quality at a large depth, etc.) must be addressed for its universal adaptation, as well as to improve the quality of its imaging and interventions. This review aims to present the role of TEE in the intraprocedural guidance of percutaneous structural interventions. We also focus on the current and future developments required in a multimodal image integration process when using TEE to enhance the management of congenital and SHD treatments.

Publication Title

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)