Cyclical phase transformations and dynamic equilibrium in mechanical alloying

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Mechanical alloying (MA) often synthesizes a mixture of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases. In many instances, the relative phase fractions are apparently invariant after long milling times. The situation is termed dynamic equilibrium. Recent work, however, shows evidence of cyclical phase transformations taking place during MA. Cyclical phase transformations resemble dynamic equilibrium in the sense that two phases are simultaneously present during milling. On the other hand, phase fractions vary during cyclical transformations. In this paper we rely on thermodynamic and kinetic concepts to establish connections between cyclical transformations and dynamic equilibrium. We find that dynamic equilibrium represents a true steady state, and cyclical transformations are a transient precursor to this situation.

Publication Title

Philosophical Magazine