Catabolism of 4-hydroxyacids and 4-hydroxynonenal via 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs

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4-Hydroxyacids are products of ubiquitously occurring lipid peroxidation (C9, C6) or drugs of abuse (C4, C5). We investigated the catabolism of these compounds using a combination of metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis. Livers were perfused with various concentrations of unlabeled and labeled saturated 4-hydroxyacids (C4 to C11) or 4-hydroxynonenal. All the compounds tested form a new class of acyl-CoA esters, 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs, characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, accurate mass spectrometry, and 31P-NMR. All 4-hydroxyacids with five or more carbons are metabolized by two new pathways. The first and major pathway, which involves 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs, leads in six steps to the isomerization of 4-hydroxyacyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs. The latter are intermediates of physiological β-oxidation. The second and minor pathway involves a sequence of β-oxidation, β-oxidation, and β-oxidation steps. In mice deficient in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, high plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxybutyrate result in high concentrations of 4-hydroxy-4-phospho-butyryl-CoA in brain and liver. The high concentration of 4-hydroxy-4-phospho-butyryl-CoA may be related to the cerebral dysfunction of subjects ingesting 4-hydroxybutyrate and to the mental retardation of patients with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria. Our data illustrate the potential of the combination of metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis for pathway discovery. © 2009 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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Journal of Biological Chemistry