Intercalation of anti-inflammatory drug molecules within TiO < inf> 2 nanotubes

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Medical implants such as orthopedic, dental, and vascular stents may require subsequent drug therapy regiments to prevent infection or decrease inflammation. Drug release derived directly from the implant surface rather than systemically can reduce unnecessary side effects. TiO2 nanotubes could be considered a more suitable alternative route for the development of drug-eluting implants. This is mainly due to the fact that the fabrication of these nanostructures does not require an additional coating process and they will not delaminate from the surface. On the contrary, TiO2 nanotubes have shown an increased osseointegration compared to conventional titanium surfaces. This study aims to provide a novel technology for encapsulating anti-inflammatory drug (sodium naproxen) inside biocompatible TiO2 nanotubes by means of self-sustained diffusion. These nanotubes can be used as stand-alone drug carriers or as surface modification of orthopedic and/or dental implants. The self-sustained diffusion process occurs at room temperature and ambient pressure, which is not harmful for drug chemistry and structure of TiO2 nanotubes. The demonstrated availability of biocompatible TiO2 drug carriers also shows that this method can be extended to many other drug systems, thus eliminating completely the chances for cytotoxicity of the 'state of the art' methods of drug delivery. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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RSC Advances