Scalable high-power redox capacitors with aligned nanoforests of crystalline MnO < inf> 2 nanorods by high voltage electrophoretic deposition

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It is commonly perceived that reduction-oxidation (redox) capacitors have to sacrifice power density to achieve higher energy density than carbon-based electric double layer capacitors. In this work, we report the synergetic advantages of combining the high crystallinity of hydrothermally synthesized α-MnO2 nanorods with alignment for high performance redox capacitors. Such an approach is enabled by high voltage electrophoretic deposition (HVEPD) technology which can obtain vertically aligned nanoforests with great process versatility. The scalable nanomanufacturing process is demonstrated by roll-printing an aligned forest of α-MnO2 nanorods on a large flexible substrate (1 inch by 1 foot). The electrodes show very high power density (340 kW/kg at an energy density of 4.7 Wh/kg) and excellent cyclability (over 92% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles). Pretreatment of the substrate and use of a conductive holding layer have also been shown to significantly reduce the contact resistance between the aligned nanoforests and the substrates. High areal specific capacitances of around 8500 μF/cm2 have been obtained for each electrode with a two-electrode device configuration. Over 93% capacitance retention was observed when the cycling current densities were increased from 0.25 to 10 mA/cm2, indicating high rate capabilities of the fabricated electrodes and resulting in the very high attainable power density. The high performance of the electrodes is attributed to the crystallographic structure, 1D morphology, aligned orientation, and low contact resistance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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ACS Nano