Removal of prometryn from hydroponic media using marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.)

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Department of Biological Sciences


The aquatic plant Hydrocotyle vulgaris was evaluated for its efficacy in removing prometryn from nutrient solution. Under optimized experimental conditions, up to 94.0% of the initial prometryn was removed from the hydroponic culture medium by H. vulgaris in 30 days. The concentration of prometryn decreased from the initial level of 0.55 ± 0.013 mg/L to 0.036 ± 0.001 mg/L at the end of the experimental period. The removal kinetics followed first-order kinetic equation (Ct = 0.4569e−0.09t). Half-life (t1/2) of prometryn was greatly shortened from 27.16 days (without plant) to 5.58 days (with H. vulgaris). Approximately 22% of the initial prometryn residue was found in H. vulgaris tissue, while 11.7% was degraded by the plant in 30 days. The metabolites of prometryn detected were 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (in the hydroponic culture medium) and 2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine (in plant tissue) after 30 days. The results indicate that H. vulgaris can be used for phytoextraction of prometryn and could potentially be effective in removing other s-trazine pesticides from contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

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© 2018 Taylor & Francis. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2018.1448359

Publication Title

International Journal of Phytoremediation