Addition of hydrogen sulfide to juglone

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Evidence of the addition of hydrogen sulfide to 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) in aqueous solution was obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry (EPR), UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, and kinetic measurements. Although numerous addition reactions of thiolated alkane and aromatic compounds to quinones have been previously reported, this study indicates that inorganic forms of S(-II) act as nucleophiles and electrophiles in addition reactions to the α,β-conjugated system of the quinone. The results obtained are consistent with competing Michael and radical addition reactions, with radical addition favored with increasing pH. The simplest structure that simulated the NMR spectrum was a sulfur molecule containing sulfur bonded between two juglone molecules at C-2 or C-3,while EPR measurements of aqueous reaction solutions indicated the presence of a stable semiquinone that contained a sulfur substituent at C-2 or C-3. Quinones are present in trace amounts in natural organic matter, and the addition of S(-II) has important implications with respect to transport and transformation of a variety of compounds that react with natural organic matter.

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Environmental Science and Technology