Fabrication and characterization of a nitric oxide-releasing nanofibrous gelatin matrix

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Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, immune responses, and wound repair. The pro-angiogenic and antimicrobial properties of NO has stimulated the development of NO-releasing materials for wound dressings. Gelatin, an abundant natural biodegradable polymer derived from collagen, is able to promote wound repair. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) can release NO under physiological conditions and when exposed to light. The objective of this project was to fabricate a NO-releasing gelatin-based nanofibrous matrix with precise light-controllable ability. Results showed that under controlled phase separation fabrication conditions, the gelatin formed a highly porous matrix with the nanofiber diameter ranging from 50 to 500 nm. Importantly, the removal of the trace amount of divalent metal ions within gelatin generated a more stable nanofibrous structure. N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (NAP) was functionalized onto the matrix and nitrosated with t-butyl nitrite, yielding a SNAP-gelatin matrix. Analysis of the photoinitiated NO-release showed that the SNAP-gelatin matrices released NO in a highly controllable manner. Application of increasing light intensities yielded increased NO flux from the matrices. In addition, the dried matrices stored in dark at 4 C maintained stable NO storage capacity, and the purified (ion-removed) gelatin preserved higher NO-releasing capacity than nonpurified gelatin. The antibacterial effect from the SNAP-gelatin matrices was demonstrated by exposing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to a light-triggered NO flux. This controllable NO-releasing scaffold provides a potential antibacterial therapeutic approach to combat drug resistant bacteria. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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