Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Department of Physics


The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory is a ground-based air shower array designed to detect Cherenkov light produced in water by secondary particles from atmospheric air showers. In order to improve the sensitivity at the highest energies, especially for the shower cores falling outside the main array, 345 smaller Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) were installed around the main array, the outrigger array. This extension increased the instrumented area of HAWC by a factor of four. With the increased size of the array, and the ability to detect shower particles further away from the core, understanding of the time structure of the shower front is crucial for accurate direction reconstruction and mandates proper modeling. In this contribution, we present a model of the shower front as expected to be observed by the outriggers obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. Applying this model to shower reconstruction, the improvements on air shower parameter are studied.

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Copyright owned by the author(s) under the term of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title

Proceedings of Science


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Physics Commons



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