Development of dual receptor biosensors: An analysis of FRET pairs

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The development of a dual receptor detection method for enhanced biosensor monitoring was investigated by analyzing potential fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs. The dual receptor scheme requires the integration of a chemical transducer system with two unique protein receptors that bind to a single biological agent. The two receptors are tagged with special molecular groups (donors and acceptors fluorophores) while the chemical transduction system relies on the well-known mechanisms of FRET. During the binding event, the two FRET labeled receptors dock at the binding sites on the surface of the biological agent. The resulting close proximity of the two fluorophores upon binding will initiate the energy transfer resulting in fluorescence. The paper focuses on the analysis and optimization of the chemical transduction system. A variety of FRET fluorophore pairs were tested in a spectrofluorimeter and promising FRET pairs were then tagged to the protein, avidin and its ligand, biotin. Due to their affinities, the FRET-tagged biomolecules combine in solution, resulting in a stable, fluorescent signal from the acceptor FRET dye with a simultaneous decrease in fluorescent signal from the donor FRET dye. The results indicate that the selected FRET pairs can be utilized in the development of dual receptor sensors. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

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Biosensors and Bioelectronics