CellNO trap: Novel device for quantitative, real-time, direct measurement of nitric oxide from cultured RAW 267.4 macrophages

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© 2016 The Authors. Nitric oxide (NO), is arguably one of the most important small signaling molecules in biological systems. It regulates various biological responses in both physiological and pathological conditions, often time producing seemingly contradictory results. The details of the effects of NO are highly dependent on the level of NO that cells experience and the temporal aspect of when and how long cells are exposed to NO. Herein, we present a novel measurement system (CellNO trap) that allows real-time NO measurement via chemiluminescence detection from general adhesive cultured cells using standard cell culture media and reagents that does not perturb the cells under investigation. Highly controlled light-initiated NO releasing polymer SNAP-PDMS was used to characterize and validate the quantitative data nature of the device. The NO generation profile from the macrophage cell-line RAW264.7 stimulated by 100 ng/ml LPS and 10 ng/ml IFN-γ was recorded. Measured maximum NO flux from RAW264.7 varied between around 2.5-9 pmol/106 cell/s under 100 ng/ml LPS and 10 ng/ml IFN-γ stimulation, and 24 h cumulative NO varied between 157 and 406 nmol/106cell depending on different culture conditions, indicating the conventional report of an average flux or maximum flux is not sufficient to represent the dynamic characters of NO. LPS and IFN-γ's synergistic effect to RAW264.7 NO generation was also directly observed with the CellNO trap. The real-time effect on the NO generation from RAW264.7 following the addition of arginine, nor-NOHA and L-NAME to the cultured cells is presented. There is great potential to further our understanding of the role NO plays in normal and pathological conditions clearly understanding the dynamic production of NO in response to different stimuli and conditions; use of CellNO trap makes it possible to quantitatively determine the precise NO release profile generated from cells in a continuous and real-time manner with chemiluminescence detection.

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Redox Biology