Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO < inf> 2 and O < inf> 3 during leaf maturation and senescence

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Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE. Microarray data were analyzed with clustering techniques, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and Sammon's mappings, to detect similar gene expression patterns within sampling times and treatments. Most of the alterations in gene expression were caused by O3, alone or in combination with CO2. O3 induced defensive reactions to oxidative stress and earlier leaf senescence, seen as decreased expression of photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes, and increased expression of senescence-associated genes. The effects of elevated CO2 reflected surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary compounds. The combined CO2 + O3 treatment resulted in differential gene expression than with individual gas treatments or in changes similar to O3 treatment, indicating that CO2 cannot totally alleviate the harmful effects of O3. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Environmental Pollution