Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO < inf> 2 and O < inf> 3
Betula papyrifera trees were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 (1.4 × ambient), O3 (1.2 × ambient) or CO2 + O3 at the Aspen Free-air CO2 Enrichment Experiment. The treatment effects on leaf surface characteristics were studied after nine years of tree exposure. CO2 and O3 increased epidermal cell size and reduced epidermal cell density but leaf size was not altered. Stomatal density remained unaffected, but stomatal index increased under elevated CO2. Cuticular ridges and epicuticular wax crystallites were less evident under CO2 and CO2 + O3. The increase in amorphous deposits, particularly under CO2 + O3, was associated with the appearance of elongated plate crystallites in stomatal chambers. Increased proportions of alkyl esters resulted from increased esterification of fatty acids and alcohols under elevated CO2 + O3. The combination of elevated CO2 and O3 resulted in different responses than expected under exposure to CO2 or O3 alone. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO < inf> 2 and O < inf> 3 .
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