Efficient one-pot synthesis and loading of self-assembled amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles for low-leaching wood preservation

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A simple, one-step and one-pot method was used to synthesize amphiphilic self-assembling chitosan-g-PMMA nanoparticles (∼100 nm diameter by SEM, but ∼150-200 nm in water by DLS), containing ∼25-28 wt.% (∼82-93% capture efficiency) of the fungicide tebuconazole. The matrix composition was selected to be environmentally low impact, while the nanoparticle preparation conditions were designed to ensure the nanoparticles were sufficiently small to be able to penetrate the pit pairs of solid wood. These nanoparticles were delivered into southern pine sapwood blocks at target fungicide retentions of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 kg tebuconazole/m3wood. SEM analysis of a 19 mm × 19 mm × 455 mm nanoparticle-treated wooden stake confirmed penetration throughout the interior of the treated stake. Leaching studies confirmed that biocide introduced into sapwood via nanoparticle carriers leached only about 9% as much fungicide as solution-treated controls, while soil jar tests showed the nanoparticle-treated wood blocks effectively protected the wood from biological decay when tested against G. trabeum, a brown rot fungus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

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Carbohydrate Polymers