Cerium oxide nanoparticles attenuate monocrotaline induced right ventricular hypertrophy following pulmonary arterial hypertension

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© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Cerium oxide (CeO < inf> 2 ) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit potent anti-oxidant activity which may allow for the use of these materials in biomedical applications. Herein, we investigate whether CeO < inf> 2 nanoparticle administration can diminish right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy following four weeks of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, MCT only (60 mg/kg), or MCT + CeO < inf> 2 nanoparticle treatment (60 mg/kg; 0.1 mg/kg). Compared to the control group, the RV weight to body weight ratio was 45% and 22% higher in the MCT and MCT + CeO < inf> 2 groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Doppler echocardiography demonstrated that CeO < inf> 2 nanoparticle treatment attenuated monocrotaline-induced changes in pulmonary flow and RV wall thickness. Paralleling these changes in cardiac function, CeO < inf> 2 nanoparticle treatment also diminished MCT-induced increases in right ventricular (RV) cardiomyocyte cross sectional area, β-myosin heavy chain, fibronectin expression, protein nitrosylation, protein carbonylation and cardiac superoxide levels. These changes with treatment were accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2, diminished caspase-3 activation and reduction in serum inflammatory markers. Taken together, these data suggest that CeO < inf> 2 nanoparticle administration may attenuate the hypertrophic response of the heart following PAH.

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