Gardasil-9: A global survey of projected efficacy
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of human neoplasias such as warts and cancers. There are ∼19 HPV types associated with cancers, which has made it very challenging for first generation HPV vaccines to offer complete protection against all cancer-causing HPV types. Recently, a second generation HPV vaccine, Gardasil-9, has been approved to protect against more HPV types. Worldwide, Gardasil-9 will protect against HPV types associated with ∼90% of cervical cancer case in women and 80-95% of other HPV-associated anogenital cancers in both men and women. However, due to variation in HPV-type specific prevalence and distribution, the vaccine will offer different percentages of protection in different geographical regions; Gardasil-9 will offer protection against HPV types associated with ∼87.7% of cervical cancers in Asia, 91.7% in Africa, 92% in North America, 90.9% in Europe, 89.5% in Latin America & the Caribbean, and 86.5% in Australia. Because of this, Pap smear screening and testing for HPV types not included in Gardasil-9 will need to continue, especially in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to achieve complete protection against all HPV types that cause cervical cancer, a third-generation HPV vaccine is needed.
Gardasil-9: A global survey of projected efficacy.
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