Triple-notch UWB monopole antenna with fractal Koch and T-shaped stub

Document Type


Publication Date



© 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. In this study, a triple-notch ultra-wideband (UWB) monopole antenna with fractal Koch and T-shaped stub is presented. The prototype antenna is based on a circular monopole antenna with a back-plane feed line modified for 2-11 GHz in an omnidirectional pattern. By implementing a combination of fractal Koch and T-shaped stub on the antenna, a triple-notch band occurred at 2, 3.5, and 5.8 GHz for rejecting personal communication services (PCS), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), and wireless local area network (WLAN). In addition to the UWB application frequency range of 3.1-10.6 GHz, the final antenna covers a frequency range of 1.78-1.91 GHz for GSM 1800, 2.28-3.120 GHz for Wi-Fi, and 2.4 GHz for Bluetooth applications with a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) < 2. Simulated results of HFSS and CST are compared with experimental results. The dimensions of the antenna are 50 mm × 50 mm × 1.6 mm. The current distribution and efficiency at notch frequency are noted for the whole frequency band, and the maximum antenna gain is between -3.5 and 6.5 dBi. In this study, methods using Koch structure and T-shaped stub to achieve triple-notch antenna are implemented in three steps. In addition, the effects of T-shaped stub and fractal Koch on the magnitude of the antenna (S11) are studied.

Publication Title

AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications