Improving the Performance of Implantable Sensors with Nitric Oxide Release

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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Directly monitoring physiological analytes on a continuous, real-time basis may lead to improved patient outcomes. Although the technology to fabricate robust miniature sensors has existed for decades, these sensors fail to accurately track the true physiological status of patients after implantation in the human body. Nitric oxide (NO) may be employed to mediate the biological response toward the implanted sensors allowing the sensors to accurately and reliably monitor analytes of interest such that therapeutic decisions could be made based on sensor readings. This chapter discusses details of the biological response that results in senor failure and why NO may help control this response. Three approaches for NO production (N-diazeniumdiolates, S-nitrosothiols, and catalytic NO generation from endogenous S-nitrosothiols) and NO releasing materials that utilize these approaches which have been applied in sensor fabrication are presented. NO releasing sensors have shown greatly enhanced performance in blood contacting and tissue contacting applications in vivo.

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Nitric Oxide Donors: Novel Biomedical Applications and Perspectives