Drill wear sensing and failure prediction for untended machining

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Real-time control of drilling was carried out by measuring the thrust force and determining its gradient. Using a microcomputer-based feedback control system, experiments were carried out under different cutting conditions to test the effectiveness of the thrust force gradient in predicting failure. The system was able to predict failure due to excessive wear commonly encountered with 5 and 8 mm drills. With such drills, excessive weat at the outer corner led to an increase in the local temperature which in turn increased the wear. This led to very high temperatures (> 600°C), causing local welding of the drill material to the peripheral surface of the hole being drilled. Furthermore, the high temperatures reduced the compressive yield strength of the drill material, causing sub-surface fracture to occur under the influence of the cutting loads. This cyclic phenomenon of "seizure" due to local welding and "release" due to shear fracture (i.e. "stick-slip") caused sharp fluctuations in the thrust force under constant feed. This paper discusses the effectiveness of the control system described above in predicting failure due to the excessive wear common to large drills. This system is also contrasted with another based on vibration measurements which has been successfully used to predict failure due to fracture common with small drills. This paper also presents other experimental sensor schemes in the literature. Finally, this paper proposes a framework for an "intelligent" machining process control system driven by multiple sensors, which would facilitate untended machining. © 1988.

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Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing