The use of indicator species to classify climax sugar maple and eastern hemlock forests in Upper Michigan

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Four Tsuga canadensis and Acer saccharum dominated Associations within climax stands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan were identified using the Bray-Curtis method of ordination. The use of all but the most common groundflora species in the ordinations successfully delineated the four Associations. Although ordinating stands of all four Associations using indicator species resulted in an intermixing of stands between Associations, the use of indicator species to delineate two Associations at a time was successful. A simple key was developed that can be easily used by land managers to identify these Associations in either climax or seral stands. Testing the key in other climax stands of this geographic region proved successful. The potential uses of this classification system by land managers in the Northern Hardwoods Region is discussed. © 1976.

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Forest Ecology and Management