Characterization of organic extracts from standard reference materials 1649, 'urban dust/organics,' and 1650, 'diesel particulate matter', using a microsuspension assay. A WHO/IPCS/CSCM study

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Mutagenicity associated with replicate organic extracts from standard reference materials 1649 'urban dust/organics' (air particles), and 1650, 'diesel particulate matter' (diesel particles), was determined using a Salmonella microsuspension assay. The results indicate that the mutagenicity of samples such as these can readily be determined using the microsuspension assay with only 5% of the mass required for the standard plate incorporation asssay. In general, 80% of the variation in mutagenic activity was due to the bioassay procedure and 20% to the extraction process. Extracts from both samples had primarily direct-acting mutagenicity as there were no significant differences in responses with and without metabolic activation (S9). The TA98 - S9 mean air particles mutagenic activities (C.V., %) based on mass of extractable organics or particles were 4.4 (4.7%) and 0.29 (3.6%) revertants/μg, respectively, and for the diesel particles were 66 (44%) and 12 (29%) revertants/μg, respectively. More of the observed direct-acting mutagenicity in the diesel particles extracts was due to nitro-substituted compounds because there were significant reductions in activity with TA98NR (45% of TA98 -S9) and TA98-1,8-DNP6 (21% of TA98 -S9). In the air particles extracts, the TA98NR activities were not significantly different from TA98 - S9 but the TA98-1,8-DNP6 levels were. © 1992.

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Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology