Concurrence and Negativity as a Family of Two Measures Elaborated for Pure Qudit States

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© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. We investigate entangled states of an atomic trapped ion interacting with two phonons in the Λ configuration forming a twelve-dimensional Hilbert space. We study two elaborated measures, namely, the concurrence C and negativity N, which are important in current theoretical studies. Therefore, we work with the three-dimensional reduced density matrix in calculating the measures elaborated for pure qudit states in the ionic–phononic system. To demonstrate the benefits of the family of the two measures elaborated, we perform the calculations for different values of the Lamb–Dicke (LD) parameter η = 0.01, 0.3, and 0.5. Finally, we show that the pure qudit states under study are maximum entangled states.

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Journal of Russian Laser Research