On tool wear and its effect on machined surface integrity

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Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


This paper presents the results of an investigation of induced residual stress, induced strain, and induced subsurface energy in machined surfaces due to the machining process. The influence of tool wear on residual stress, strain, and energy is also reported. The exact elasticity solution for a split ring was extended and used to calculate the residual stress in the machined surface by using ring dimension changes caused by the electrochemical removal of a thin layer of residually stressed surface. The strain distribution beneath the machined surface was determined by using the grid technique. The subsurface energy stored in the machined surface was then obtained from the data of residual stress and strain. For the materials studied, this investigation showed that such energy could not be neglected when establishing the total energy needed for machining a unit volume of material. Tool coatings having different surface roughness and tools having various magnitudes of flank wear were investigated. The experimental results show that tool wear is a dominant factor affecting the values of induced residual stress, strain, subsurface energy, and the quality of the machined surface. The increase of tool wear caused an increase of residual stress and strain beneath the machined surface. It was also found that the overall energy stored in the machined subsurface increases as the tool wear increases and as the tool surface gets rougher. When the cutting tool is severely worn, the machined surface not only becomes very rough, but also contains many partially fractured laps or cracks. This makes tool wear a key factor in controlling the quality of the machined surface.

Publication Title

Journal of Materials Shaping Technology