Viscoelastic modelling of entrance flow using multimode Leonov model

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A simulation of planar 2D flow of a viscoelastic fluid employing the Leonov constitutive equation has been presented. Triangular finite elements with lower-order interpolations have been employed for velocity and pressure as well as the extra stress tensor arising from the constitutive equation. A generalized Lesaint-Raviart method has been used for an upwind discretization of the material derivative of the extra stress tensor in the constitutive equation. The upwind scheme has been further strengthened in our code by also introducing a nonconsistent streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method to modify the weighting function of the material derivative term in the variational form of the constitutive equation. A variational equation for configurational incompressibility of the Leonov model has also been satisfied explicitly. The corresponding software has been used to simulate planar 2D entrance flow for a 4:1 abrupt contraction up to a Deborah number of 670 (Weissenberg number of 6-71) for a rubber compound using a three-mode Leonov model. The predicted entrance loss is found to be in good agreement with experimental results from the literature. Corresponding comparisons for a commercial-grade polystyrene, however, indicate that the predicted entrance loss is low by a factor of about four, indicating a need for further investigation.

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International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids