Generalized Nash equilibrium problem based electric vehicle charging management in distribution networks

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© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This paper presents a generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP) approach for the management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging activities in a distribution network. The PEV charging pricing signal is designed to reflect the distribution network operational cost. The charging strategy of individual PEVs is allowed to respond price tariff to minimize its charging cost, while must also consider the charging requirement and grid facility constraints, such as vehicle on board charger, distribution node, and substation power limits. With this approach, the selected charging strategies are near socially optimal solutions under physical constraints. The PEV charging GNEP is reformulated by Nikaido-Isoda function, which converts a distributed decision-making problem to a constrained optimization problem. Due to the non-differentiability of individual objective functions in the GNEP, relaxation algorithm is employed for searching optimal solutions in an iteration process. To adapt to the uncertainty and randomness of PEV fleet and grid load dynamics, the PEV charging management algorithm updates the GNEP when there are newly connected/disconnected PEVs or the load variation in the distribution network exceeds a predefined value. To validate the presented method, two use cases are defined. Simulation results of these two use cases verify the effectiveness of this method in both regulating the PEV charging activities and achieving PEV charging customers' objectives. The effect of customer participation rate on the performance of the presented control scheme is also analyzed.

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International Journal of Energy Research