Environmental aspects

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geospatial Engineering


Understanding that activities associated with built infrastructure can have environmental impacts is important. This chapter provides an overview of the greenhouse effect and quantitative tools (carbon footprint analysis and lifecycle assessment) to estimate such impacts. It explains the greenhouse effect—necessary background to the ongoing discussion on climate change. Climate change has directly or indirectly had global environmental impacts, both physical and ecological. Undertaking environmental assessment studies during site or project development can uncover and clarify local environmental impacts, which may provide opportunities to mitigate or minimize such impacts. Carbon footprint analysis and lifecycle assessment are common tools used in quantifying greenhouse gas emissions and other broader environmental impacts such as air pollutants, smog, ozone depletion, acidification, and eutrophication.

Publisher's Statement

© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers. Publisher's version of record: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784414811.ch08

Publication Title

Engineering for Sustainable Communities