Electric Vehicle Battery Cycle Aging Evaluation in Real-World Daily Driving and Vehicle-to-Grid Services
© 2015 IEEE. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2017.2764320
In this paper, battery lifetime estimation of an electric vehicle (EV) using different driving styles on arterial roads integrating recharging scenarios in the neighborhood of the vehicle-to-grid integration is studied. The real-world driving cycles from a fleet of connected vehicles are evaluated in an EV model with different charging options. Daily utility services are added to the simulations to explore the whole day performance of the battery and its daily degradation. Fifty driving cycles from different drivers on arterial roads are classified into aggressive, mild, and gentle drivers based on their driving acceleration behavior. The standard levels 1 and 2 chargers are considered for recharging and the frequency regulation, and peak shaving and solar energy storage are assumed for the daily ancillary services. The results indicate that the aggressive driving and recharging behavior have significant effect on the battery life reduction. In addition, the daily utility services impose extra degradation of the battery. Also, the effect of temperature change on the battery degradation is explored. Simulation of active versus passive thermal management systems in three different climates shows the significant impact of the battery temperature on its capacity fade.