An energy model of droplet impingement on an inclined wall under isothermal and non-isothermal environments

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Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics that occur during fuel impingement onto the chamber wall or piston surfaces in internal combustion engines. It is found that the maximum spreading length of an impinged droplet can provide a quantitative estimation of heat transfer and energy transformation for spray-wall interaction. Furthermore, it influences the air-fuel mixing and hydrocarbon and particle emissions at combusting conditions. In this paper, an analytical model of different droplet-wall impingement conditions is developed in terms of βm (dimensionless maximum spreading length, the ratio of maximum spreading length to initial droplet diameter) to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. These conditions are grouped as: a single diesel droplet impinging on the wall with different inclined angles (α); cold wall - heated droplet and heated wall - cold droplet impingement when inclined angle of the wall is 0°, respectively. The analytical model is built up based on the energy conservation that considers kinetic energy, gravitation energy, and surface energy before impingement, as well as viscous dissipation, gravitation energy, adhesion energy, deformation energy, and heat energy after impingement. The experimental work of diesel droplet impinging on an inclined wall is performed at a certain range of the Weber number (We of 33 to 420) with various inclined angles (α of 0° to 45°), while for inclined angle is 0°, droplet and wall temperature are varied from 25°C to 150°C to study the effects of the inclined angle and temperature on the temporal evolution of the post-impingement characteristics (i.e. droplet spreading length, dynamic contact angle). The analytical model is validated and evaluated at the aforementioned experimental operating points. The validated model can be employed to predict maximum spreading length of the droplet impinged on the wall. It is further utilized to determine the transition from capillary regime to kinetic regime, then to viscous regime at different inclined angle of the wall.

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© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119892

Publication Title

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer