A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on a FRET rhodamine donor linked to a cyanine acceptor for sensitive detection of intracellular pH alternations
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102679
A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based near-infrared fluorescent probe (B+) for double-checked sensitive detection of intracellular pH changes has been synthesized by binding a near-infrared rhodamine donor to a near-infrared cyanine acceptor through robust C-N bonds via a nucleophilic substitution reaction. To demonstrate the double-checked advantages of probe B+, a near-infrared probe (A) was also prepared by modification of a near-infrared rhodamine dye with ethylenediamine to produce a closed spirolactam residue. Under basic conditions, probe B+ shows only weak fluorescence from the cyanine acceptor while probe A displays nonfluorescence due to retention of the closed spirolactam form of the rhodamine moiety. Upon decrease in solution pH level, probe B+ exhibits a gradual fluorescence increase from rhodamine and cyanine constituents at 623 nm and 743 nm respectively, whereas probe A displays fluorescence increase at 623 nm on the rhodamine moiety as acidic conditions leads to the rupture of the probe spirolactam rings. Probes A and B+ have successfully been used to monitor intracellular pH alternations and possess pKa values of 5.15 and 7.80, respectively.