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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electric vehicles (EV) and photovoltaic (PV) generation are widely recognized around the world. Most EV owners in the major Chinese cities are forced to charge their EV batteries at the workplace during the daytime due to the limited space near their homes, which will increase the peak load during the daytime. On the other hand, the PV output is most likely to have a peak at around noon, which means, PVs could have a potential capability to compensate the EV charging load. An EV owner-friendly charging strategy based on PV utilization which alleviates both the EV charging constraints and the negative impact of the EV charging load on the grid is proposed. The PV utilization for compensating the unconstrained EV charging load is maximized to derive the maximum number of EVs with unconstrained charging. If the actual number of EVs exceeds the maximum number, a portion of EVs have to be charged only from the grid. Then, the line loss is introduced as the optimization objective in which the charging states are regulated. The case study shows that the proposed strategy can successfully increase the number of EVs with unconstrained charging, and reduce the peak-to-peak of the load curve.

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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( Publisher’s version of record:

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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