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Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


The intermittent nature of renewable sources requires the integration of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) with appropriate power and energy densities. One of the applications of Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is to size ESSs for power and energy densities by employing them as sole actuators of Microgrid (MG) systems. This Article provides a comprehensive yet simplified example of utilization of HSSPFC to size ESSs of inverter-based three-phase MG systems under hierarchical control. Here, the distributed Hamiltonian controller is expanded for control of parallel ESSs and power sharing metrics are defined to distribute power between hybrid storage systems according to their power and energy density capabilities. Simulated hybrid ESSs comprising battery and flywheel systems are used as examples to demonstrate the behaviour of the expanded control, verify the power sharing criteria and illustrate ESS design and specification by utilizing HSSPFC.

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© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( Publisher’s version of record:

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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