Bound-Preserving Discontinuous Galerkin Methods with Modified Patankar Time Integrations for Chemical Reacting Flows

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Department of Mathematical Sciences


In this paper, we develop bound-preserving discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for chemical reactive flows. There are several difficulties in constructing suitable numerical schemes. First of all, the density and internal energy are positive, and the mass fraction of each species is between 0 and 1. Second, due to the rapid reaction rate, the system may contain stiff sources, and the strong-stability-preserving explicit Runge-Kutta method may result in limited time-step sizes. To obtain physically relevant numerical approximations, we apply the bound-preserving technique to the DG methods. Though traditional positivity-preserving techniques can successfully yield positive density, internal energy, and mass fractions, they may not enforce the upper bound 1 of the mass fractions. To solve this problem, we need to (i) make sure the numerical fluxes in the equations of the mass fractions are consistent with that in the equation of the density; (ii) choose conservative time integrations, such that the summation of the mass fractions is preserved. With the above two conditions, the positive mass fractions have summation 1, and then, they are all between 0 and 1. For time discretization, we apply the modified Runge-Kutta/multi-step Patankar methods, which are explicit for the flux while implicit for the source. Such methods can handle stiff sources with relatively large time steps, preserve the positivity of the target variables, and keep the summation of the mass fractions to be 1. Finally, it is not straightforward to combine the bound-preserving DG methods and the Patankar time integrations. The positivity-preserving technique for DG methods requires positive numerical approximations at the cell interfaces, while Patankar methods can keep the positivity of the pre-selected point values of the target variables. To match the degree of freedom, we use Qk polynomials on rectangular meshes for problems in two space dimensions. To evolve in time, we first read the polynomials at the Gaussian points. Then, suitable slope limiters can be applied to enforce the positivity of the solutions at those points, which can be preserved by the Patankar methods, leading to positive updated numerical cell averages. In addition, we use another slope limiter to get positive solutions used for the bound-preserving technique for the flux. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.

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Communications on Applied Mathematics and Computation